IALD ENLIGHTEN AMERICAS 2013 NEWS
IALD HOSTED RECORD NUMBER OF ENLIGHTEN AMERICAS ATTENDEES IN MONTRÉAL
Four hundred lighting design professionals attended IALD Enlighten Americas 2013, a record-breaking number for the annual conference. Read on to learn more about the conference proceedings.
Look for the next issue of Reflections on 25 October for more coverage of Enlighten Americas, including a breakdown of the wildly popular keynote talk by Michael Pawlyn of Exploration Architecture, special volunteer recognition at the conference, and recaps of the evening and networking events that make the conference so popular year after year.
Follow the IALD Facebook
pages for more photographs of the event in the coming week. If you have unique pictures of IALD Enlighten Americas 2013 to share, please send them to Jessica Burke, IALD Marketing + Communications Coordinator, at firstname.lastname@example.org
GROWING EMERGING LIGHTING DESIGN PROFESSIONALS INITIATIVE BRINGS 52 NEW DESIGNERS TO MONTRÉAL
This year marked the third year of the Emerging Lighting Design Professionals Initiative, a program launched in 2011 by the Lighting Industry Resource Council (LIRC). Envisioned to assist design firms in providing professional development for junior staff, the program financially supports designers within their first five years of on-the-job practice to attend IALD Enlighten Americas.
EMERGING DESIGNERS HAD THE OPPORTUNITY TO MEET LEADERS IN THE LIGHTING PROFESSION, INCLUDING IALD PRESIDENT ELECT BARBARA HORTON, FIALD, PICTURED LEFT
The 52 designers who joined seasoned lighting professionals in Montréal would otherwise not have been able to attend the conference. "The emerging designers program was a fantastic opportunity to meet more people at my age and experience level," said one attendee.
Other emerging designers enjoyed the ability to connect with more seasoned professionals: "[I met] talented, brilliant, passionate people, with which to grow my career."
The LIRC also provided a reception for Emerging Lighting Designers and supporters of the program on the evening of Thursday, 3 October - this reception allowed designers and supporters to meet, and network with other participants from around the world.
A heartfelt thank you from all of the organizers of the conference go to Tom Warton of Vode Lighting and Scott Hershman, LIRC Co-Chair, of LF Illumination. Tom and Scott have championed the Emerging Lighting Design Professionals Initiative since its inception, and their leadership have made its success and growth possible.
Sixteen different manufacturers contributed funds to this year's program:
EMERGING LIGHTING DESIGN PROFESSIONALS INITIATIVE SUPPORTERS
SUPPORTING SIX DESIGNERS
SUPPORTING FIVE DESIGNERS
SUPPORTING FOUR DESIGNERS
Eaton's Cooper Lighting
SUPPORTING THREE DESIGNERS
Architectural Lighting Works
B-K Lighting + TEKA Illumination
Dasal Architectural Lighting
Juno Lighting Group
Pacific Lighting Systems
SUPPORTING TWO DESIGNERS
For a full list of emerging lighting designers and more information on the program, CLICK HERE.
ENLIGHTEN ATTENDEES LEVERAGE LIGHTING CROSS TALK TO PROVIDE DIRECT FEEDBACK TO MANUFACTURERS
Enlighten Americas 2013 featured the popular Lighting Cross Talk session, held on Friday afternoon to allow attendees two full hours to meet with manufacturers. Twenty-two manufacturers and more than 160 specifiers participated in the session.
Lighting Cross Talk is held in a round-table format to allow for fast-paced information gathering. Manufacturers set up at separate tables in a large ballroom and have 20-25 minutes to speak to five or more specifiers at a time. Manufacturers take this time to introduce new products, get feedback on existing products and discuss other specifier concerns.
This year's specifiers said they loved the rapid-fire session format, with one attendee remarking, "I am always surprised how fast two hours can go by."
Specifiers also value the opportunity to speak to representatives from multiple companies. Cross Talk is a great opportunity for frank, direct communication with manufacturers - if products need tweaking or don't work as intended, specifiers can provide feedback based on their experiences and be heard. One attendee said Cross Talk is the "best way to get your needs to the manufacturers."
The IALD would like to thank all of the manufacturers and specifiers who participated in this year's Lighting Cross Talk.
LIGHTING CROSS TALK PARTICIPANTS
B-K LIGHTING + TEKA ILLUMINATION
EATON'S COOPER LIGHTING
JUNO LIGHTING GROUP
KURT VERSEN COMPANY
LUCIFER LIGHTING COMPANY
LUTRON ELECTRONICS CO INC
SPECIALTY LIGHTING INDUSTRIES
THANK YOU TO ENLIGHTEN AMERICAS SPONSORS
The IALD gratefully acknowledges the generous support of the following sponsors.
LEADING LIGHT SPONSORS
B-K Lighting + TEKA Illumination
Lucifer Lighting Company
EVENING EVENT SPONSORS
WEDNESDAY EVENING PRE-CONFERENCE RECEPTION
THURSDAY EVENING PRESIDENT'S RECEPTION
Eaton's Cooper Lighting
FRIDAY EVENING RECEPTION
SATURDAY EVENING CLOSING RECEPTION
EMERGING LIGHTING DESIGNER RECEPTION
Lighting Industry Resource Council
FRIDAY MORNING BREAKFAST BUFFET
Kurt Versen Company
FRIDAY MORNING NETWORKING BREAK
YOUNG PROFESSIONALS HAPPY HOUR
SATURDAY MORNING BREAKFAST BUFFET
Bartco Lighting Inc
SATURDAY MORNING NETWORKING BREAK
LIFE IN LIGHT, POWERED BY PECHA KUCHA
CULTURE AND DARKNESS
ATTENDEE EXPERIENCE SPONSORS
ENLIGHTEN AMERICAS FLASH DRIVE
Specialty Lighting Industries Inc
ENLIGHTEN AMERICAS TOTE BAGS
ENLIGHTEN AMERICAS LANYARDS
ENLIGHTEN AMERICAS LEARNING JOURNAL
JUNO Lighting Group
ENLIGHTEN AMERICAS HOTEL KEYCARDS
ENLIGHTEN AMERICAS WATER BOTTLES
Dasal Architectural Lighting
STUDENT ENLIGHTEN ATTENDEES PARTICIPATE IN NEW LIGHTPLAY ACTIVITY, PORTFOLIO REVIEW SESSION AND SPECIAL WORKSHOPS
Each year, IALD is pleased to welcome the best and brightest lighting students to Enlighten Americas to participate in hands-on student activities and network alongside lighting professionals from around the world. At IALD Enlighten Americas 2013, students had an unforgettable lighting experience.
Student stipend recipients arrived in Montréal on Wednesday for LightPlay, a hands-on student lighting activity envisioned and executed by the IALD Education Trust. For this year's LightPlay, students were asked to identify the nighttime light signature of Montréal.
On Wednesday evening, students divided into teams and scoured the city with their cameras in search of exceptional architectural lighting design. Each team photographed and reviewed IALD member projects featured on Montréal LightMap and identified additional examples of outstanding lighting, such as civic buildings, restaurants, public art installations and public spaces.
On Thursday morning, the students collaborated to create visual presentations of their findings, which include photos and descriptions of each location. Montréal LightMap and the students' findings were unveiled during the President's Opening Reception, sponsored by Eaton's Cooper Lighting and held on Thursday evening. The IALD Education Trust would like to thank all individuals and companies that made contributions to the IALD Education Trust during the President's Opening Reception. In total, the IALD Education Trust received more than $20,000 USD in donations. Read on for more information on donations to the IALD Education Trust during Enlighten Americas 2013.
The IALD and the IALD Education Trust would like to thank the sponsors of LightPlay 2013:
In addition to LightPlay, students enjoyed a portfolio review session
during the afternoon networking break on Friday. During this session, students were advised by emerging, mid-career and seasoned professionals alike.
Following portfolio reviews on Friday afternoon, Lee Brandt, IALD
, and Alison Horne, Junior Associate IALD
, presented a workshop just for student attendees. The workshop focused on thriving in the lighting design profession after graduation. Alison, an emerging professional working for Candela Architectural Lighting Design in Seattle, guided students through an interactive dialogue on identifying their individual motives for working in lighting design, creating a portfolio of work, and the necessary skills to be successful in their first job. Lee, an IALD professional member who works for Horton Lees Brogden Lighting Design in New York City, offered advice to students on what to expect as a lighting designer in the professional world, including tips on identifying a mentor and matching their skills to hiring employers.
Students consistently give IALD Enlighten Americas high marks and most hope to attend again once they enter the lighting field as professionals. One student remarked, "It was one of the best experiences of my life."
IALD EDUCATION TRUST SUPPORTERS RAISE $20,000 USD FOR LIGHTING EDUCATION AT ENLIGHTEN AMERICAS
The IALD Education Trust is excited to announce that it received donations totaling more than $20,000 USD during IALD Enlighten Americas 2013! All donations received during the conference will fund programs that support students, educators and academic institutions. These programs include the IALD Education Trust Scholarship and Stipend Programs that enable students and educators to attend key international lighting events like IALD Enlighten Americas.
Thank you CM Kling + Associates
for making an advance commitment to match all LightPlay donations up to $2,500 USD in memory of Candace M. Kling, FIALD
. The IALD Education Trust would also like to extend a heartfelt thanks to the following companies that, at Lance Bennett's urging, followed CM Kling's lead during the President's Opening Reception by committing to match all LightPlay donations up to $2,500 USD:
B-K Lighting + TEKA Illumination
Eaton's Cooper Lighting
Lighting Design Alliance
Individuals and companies that made donations to the IALD Education Trust during Enlighten Americas 2013 will be recognized in the next issue of Reflections and in the December IALD Education Trust Spotlight mailing.
The IALD Education Trust is a 501(c)3 nonprofit organization. Your contribution is tax-deductible to the extent allowed by law. No goods or services were provided in exchange for your generous financial donation. Please consult with your tax advisor.
STUDENT REVIEWS OF EDUCATIONAL SEMINARS AT IALD ENLIGHTEN AMERICAS 2013
Enlighten Americas 2013 featured three concurrent seminar tracks in Art, Science, and Professional Tools. To read full summaries of each session, please click on the appropriate links. Thank you to all students who volunteered to write a summary.
A SOCIAL HISTORY OF LIGHT AND LIGHTING – Presenter: David L. DiLaura
DAILY RHYTHMS AS INSPIRATION FOR LIGHTING DESIGN – Presenter: Susanna Douglas
FOLLOWING THE SUN – Presenter: Gustavo Avilés, IALD
LIGHTING POWERS OF TEN: METHODOLOGY FOR DIFFERENT SCALES OF DESIGN – Presenter: Enrique Peiniger, IALD
HIGH MAST LIGHTING AND PUBLIC SPACE AMBIANCE – Presenter: Gilles Arpin, Associate IALD
LIGHTING EXPRESSION IN ARCHITECTURE: A LINE, A BROKEN LINE AND A CIRCLE – Presenter: Moisés Royo
CULTURE AND DARKNESS – Presenters: Guarav Jain; Victor Palacio, IALD; Glenn Shrum, IALD
LIES, DAMN LIES AND PHOTOMETRICS – Presenter: Tad Trylski, Associate IALD
LIGHT AND HUMAN HEALTH – Presenter: George Brainard, PhD
MUSEUM LIGHTING PANEL – Presenters: Scott Rosenfeld and Andreas Schulz, IALD
LIGHTING HOLLYWOOD'S PHOTOREAL DIGITAL ACTORS – Presenter: Paul Debevec
ENERGY CODES: OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES – Presenters: Glenn Heinmiller, IALD; Peter Raynham, Educator IALD; Marty Salzberg, IALD; Moderator: John Martin, IALD Public Policy
PROFESSIONAL TOOLS TRACK
IT'S OKAY TO MAKE MONEY; HERE'S HOW – Presenter: Chip Israel, FIALD
A SOCIAL HISTORY OF LIGHT AND LIGHTING
DEVELOPING LEADERSHIP: MENTORSHIP IN A DYNAMIC PROFESSION – Presenters: Nancy Clanton, IALD; Grace H. Kim, AIA; John Martin, IALD; Cynthia Murphy, Junior Associate IALD
POST OCCUPANCY: WHY AND HOW TO EVALUATE USER EXPERIENCE – Presenter: Kevan Shaw, IALD
COMMUNICATING LIGHT: INSPIRATION, PRESENTATION AND REALIZATION – Presenter: Charles Stone, FIALD
SPEC-IT FORWARD – Presenters: Conor Sampson, Educator IALD; Howard Yaphe; Moderator: Andrew Mackinnon, Associate IALD
Presenter : David L. DiLaura
By Michael R. Hawkins, Parsons The New School for Design
In his presentation on the social history of light and lighting, David DiLaura started at the beginning by describing a world illuminated only by sun and moon. Overlaying the spectral distribution of what trees absorb during photosynthesis, with the peak sensitivity of the human eye, he made it clear that we developed under these light modifying leaves.
Humans soon developed controlled fire. DiLaura posits that fire was first used for light, followed by heat, and finally cooking. We looked at many examples of early lamps and fire represented in art. In the presentation, DiLaura challenged society's romantic view of bygone darkness in night. He reminded the audience of quotes and images depicting a less than ideal night of the past. As technology improved, candles made controlling light more practical. At first, only wealthy people could truly illuminate the night, but the technology became more affordable and widely used as time progressed.
Gas lighting revolutionized light at night. It was quickly adopted but not without much of society protesting the radical change and idea of sending fire through pipes in the walls. In the beginning of gas lighting, life in light was again an incredibly expensive luxury. By the 1890s, it was affordable for most. Illuminating oils followed the same path as candles and gas, with the cost dropping as time progressed.
The first electric lamp used to light public spaces was the arc lamp. DiLaura demonstrated with photos the brightness of the arc lamp compared to gas and explained that the public soon demanded arc lamps on the streets. The idea of light making the night safer was alive and well with the introduction of the arc lamp. The arc lamp also made new projector, or magic lantern, technology possible.
Electric lighting with incandescent lamps was the next revolution in lighting. DiLaura showed how an increasing number of homes in the United Kingdom and United States were provided with power due to expansion of grids by utility companies.
DiLaura concluded his presentation by remarking, "Light always gets cheaper, and the understanding of lighting technology always get further removed from the user."
DAILY RHYTHMS AS INSPIRATION FOR LIGHTING DESIGN
Presenter : Susanna Douglas
By Elizabeth Kimble, The Pennsylvania State University
Susanna Douglas began her presentation by discussing "phenomenology,"" which is one's sense of place. Within this sense, an idea of time becomes important, and there are different ways in which we represent time - on a clock, through our position on Earth in relation to the sun, and with biological time. Ms. Douglas guided the audience through several examples of architecture's interaction with the sun and time, including Manhattanhenge, the Pantheon and the Light Lattice House.
Next, the discussion turned to the use of lighting to create an artificial impression of time. Newton's Cenotaph and Caesar's Palace both use lighting to transport visitors through artificial day and night. At the California Academy of Science penguin, lighting is used to mirror the lighting of the penguins' natural habitat.
While lighting can be used to create an artificial sense of time in certain applications for the benefit of tourists or wildlife, it can also negatively affect circadian rhythms and light pollution. Ms. Douglas posed the question, "how do we bring back a sense of day and night?" She then shared several case studies in which daylighting in a space helps with occupants' impression of time. Finally, Ms. Douglas described examples of lighting to interact with or indicate the passing of time. One example is the Helios Building at Berkeley, which uses three light columns, each with a light scoop on the roof facing a different direction, in order to illustrate the sun's movement across the sky throughout the day.
FOLLOWING THE SUN
Presenter : Gustavo Avilés, IALD
By Rebecca Slocum, The Pennsylvania State University
Gustavo Avilés, IALD, presented a fascinating lecture on the meaning of working with the sun. He reminded us that it is not just our eyes that see the sun. In reality, our whole body is light sensitive. With this, we began to understand the relationships among the sun, nature and harmony. The mathematical knowledge of the sun is fantastic. The solar system has a set geometry with each rotating sphere moving in the space-time continuum.
We explored all of the sun cultures that spread throughout the ancient world; we came to understand how sun is a permanent element of society. There are solar implications of Stonehenge, the pyramids of Giza and the Parthenon in Greece. Gustavo traced a map following the native tribes of North America, citing the sun along the way. Among all these people, we came to understand that there is a spiritual manifesto occurring.
We may not have realized it, before but Gustavo helped us recognize that all of us are still followers of the sun. As we continue to be pushed in one direction by technology, we must return to our basic knowledge and understanding that the sun is the highest technology we will ever know; Stonehenge was the first computer. Gustavo's closing message as that as society moves forward, it must harvest the power of the sun and find unity with architecture and lighting design.
LIGHTING POWERS OF TEN : METHODOLOGY FOR DIFFERENT SCALES OF DESIGN
Presenter : Enrique Peiniger, IALD
By Paula Castillo Tocornal, Parsons The New School for Design
The Powers of Ten is a logarithmic scale and also a documentary short film that visually depicts the scale of the Universe in factors of ten. The Lighting Powers of Ten is based on both of these, and is a methodology used to help designers at every stage of design.
One core idea of the Lighting Powers of Ten is that "good design is not arbitrary." All elements of design are related to each other. The range of a lighting design project can be extended into increasingly smaller yet connected elements, such as city, building, luminaire and spectrum. The Lighting Powers of Ten can be applied to each of these elements. While practicing flexibility is important, it should be done without engaging in "arbitrary."
The Lighting Powers of Ten methodology can be used strategically by lighting designers to solve problems while achieving a greater philosophical goal. The logarithmic element of this methodology helps designers face and organize the design process.
The following is an example of the Powers of Ten as it applies to the lighting design:
10+4: master plan
10+5: site plan
10+2: building structure (or sculpture same size)
10 +1: interiors, sequence of spaces.
10 º: Surfaces facades
10-4: luminaire components
10-7: spectral wavelengths
HIGH MAST LIGHTING AND PUBLIC SPACE AMBIANCE
Presenter : Gilles Arpin, Associate IALD
By G. Emmanuel Hernández, National Autonomous University of Mexico
Gilles Arpin, Associate IALD, presented three case studies of lighting for urban spaces and landscapes in Montréal. He explained how the lighting design for each location was developed based on three concepts: "Function" (tasks and activities), "Form" (lighting integration strategies) and "Feeling" (provided ambiance).
The first project presented was Place des Festivals, which is comprised of a street, plaza and park. This area can be easily adapted from a casual public space to a forum for large-scale events. The second project, Place d'Armes, is a historic square in Old Montréal that was renovated to offer pedestrians more safety. The final project was Frères-Charon Square, a small public space created to provide a local garden in the center of the city.
For each project, Gilles explored solutions for luminance control, the role of vertical objects in creating ambiance, and the role of ambiance in creating a sense of place and safety. Gilles noted how the local government influenced the process of lighting each location. With much collaboration, the lighting design of each location ultimately created innovative spaces for public activities.
LIGHTING EXPRESSION IN ARCHITECTURE : A LINE, A BROKEN LINE, AND A CIRCLE
Presenter : Moisés Royo
By Reinhardt Swart, The Pennsylvania State University
Moisés Royo presented a conceptual perspective on lighting design and its influence on architecture and space. During the session, he explained his philosophy of lighting design, showed several case studies to reinforce his point, and concluded by answering audience questions. The session enabled attendees to reflect on how lighting designers can transform a space and impress visual notions upon viewers.
"Light is an architectural object," explained Mr. Royo. To open the session, Mr. Royo expressed how he views light as an architectural object, one that creates and highlights tension in architecture. By using contrast and vibration, conceptual lighting can inform the geometry, materiality, and density of a space. He drew a metaphor between lighting and a motor engine: light is the oil inside of the engine (the architecture) applied at a certain pressure to ensure the engine functions correctly.
In his first case study, Mr. Royo discussed Dipoli, a conference center where light is implemented from the perspective of construction. Like the architecture, the forms were not revealed all at once. A rectilinear structural form intersected with a geometrically round form, creating a contrast of forms between a Cartesian and organic system. Where the two meet, "tension" is created. Here, the main corridor resides. The public lighting is broken and scattered as though the lighting composition was a broken line.
Moving on to a project of his own, the Castle of Buitrago del Lozoya, Mr. Royo explained that the lighting was used to recall the historical and cultural presence of the space. Working on a tight budget, Mr. Royo developed a lighting scheme that introduced a circular element tracing the center performance space. From the perimeter of the circle, illuminated linear walkways lead to four corners of a stone square plaza. Here, custom luminaires define visual volumes. Circular lines are horizontal. Vertical lines create scale; tension is introduced between the forms.
Moving quickly to another project, Mr. Royo highlighted how light is used at the columbarium not to highlight a surface, but to facilitate tension between a "floating" horizontal ceiling and simple vertical wall. He used this idea in his lighting design for the Castle.
Mr. Royo provided an inspiring, relevant and insightful presentation.
CULTURE AND DARKNESS
Presenters : Gaurav Jain; Victor Palacio, IALD; and Glenn Shrum, IALD
By Yike Pan, Hochschule Wismar
This session, presented by three lighting designers from around the world, explored the question, "What does darkness mean to you?" Is darkness a negative area against energy and life? Does it represent the kingdom of evilness or a deep fear of uncertainty and confusion? When we think of our career as lighting designers, is our job to fight against darkness with the power of brightness? Or, should we treat darkness as a privilege because lighting design actually means "shadow" design? The session evoked a deep rethinking of the role that darkness plays in this visual world.
These days, people are asking for increasing amounts of light, so much light that the starry night can barely be seen in most big cities around the world. At the same time, some people have started to slow progress towards "the civilization of lighting" and are beginning to appreciate the darkness in their lives. The tsunami that hit Japan in March 2011 caused leakage at a nuclear plant, leading to protests calling for less light in Tokyo.
Darkness has phenomenal importance in ritual, religion, arts and visual perception. For architects throughout history, creating a space of brightness and darkness has been considered key in the design process. For artists such as Claude Monet or James Turrell, a limitation of brightness brings an extensive appreciation of the infinities of the nature. For lighting designers, introducing the "quality of darkness" has led to the appreciation of light.
An interesting discussion happened in the middle of the session, when the lights in the conference room were turned off. The audience was asked to share their feelings about the darkness. Audience members remarked, "I like the dark because it gives me the chance to rest and think."" ""I feel the darkness as my refuge and a retreat from mundane life." "The meaning of darkness varies among genders, ages and professions." "Everything has its own timing. There will be a time when I appreciate darkness and a time I enjoy the sunshine. Both are great to me in physiology, psychology and spiritualty when taken in a proper time."
It is time to challenge the rising demand for artificial light and appreciate darkness as people did prior to the twentieth century. In order to enjoy light, we need to appreciate darkness. As lighting designer Kaoru Mende, IALD, said, "We don't see light. We see different intensities of shadows." Darkness is an important element of light and lighting designers must rethink how they utilize darkness in their work.
LIES, DAMN LIES AND PHOTOMETRICS
Presenter : Tad Trylski, Associate IALD
By Carlos Hano, Parsons The New School for Design
In a constantly changing technological lighting environment, lighting designers currently find themselves provided with a ton of information on metrics from lighting manufacturers. With such an overwhelming amount of information, it is easy for a lighting designer to specify a product thinking it will perform one way, only to find out that it performs differently.
Tad Trylski, Associate IALD, helped attendees understand the metrics data provided by manufacturers, through the eyes and experience of a professional lighting designer. Mr. Trylski explained the tricks, truths and lies of metrics data in the lighting industry. He covered color, beam angle, LOR, CRI, performance and dimming. Mr. Trylski challenged attendees to rethink their knowledge of these performance indicators, and helped them understand their real meaning. He also presented information on the range of differences that are allowed to define each performance indicator so that lighting designers may consider them in future design applications and specifications.
LIGHT AND HUMAN HEALTH
Presenter : Dr. George Brainard
By Jiyoung Bae, Parsons The New School for Design
While we can guess that light has some effect on human health and well-being, Dr. George Brainard confirmed it during this presentation. Dr. Brainard presented two published scientific biomedical research studies and four unpublished studies (to which he contributed) that confirm the relationship between light and human health. In particular, he discussed human circadian rhythms, the hormone neuroendocrine, and neurobehavioral physiology. Dr. Brainard's conclusions can help architectural lighting designers consider human health effects in their designs to provide light that not only performs visually but also behaviorally.
The first research study presented suggests that architectural lighting designers should consider therapeutic effects of (colored) lighting on the long-term health of the occupants of a space, especially those with symptoms of Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD). This study was the first to test the effect of actual architectural lighting on people with SAD to support the hypothesis that as luminance increases, so does melatonin suppression. When the hormone melatonin is suppressed, our sleep and wake cycles become disturbed.
The second research study presented shows that the brain is equipped with two systems related to the eyes and vision. One system enables us to visually see the world around us, while the other regulates the circadian, neuroendocrine and neurobehavioral systems. In one experiment, even visually blind mice (that is, mice with no functioning rods and cones in their retina) had functioning circadian rhythms, which suggests that the eye has other receptors to light that are not just for visual data but for behavioral data. Furthermore, blind humans also displayed melatonin suppression.
By understanding the effect of lighting and color on human biology, lighting designers can design lighting (or use more natural light) that contributes to healthier lives and fulfills the visual function of architectural lighting design.
MUSEUM LIGHTING PANEL
Presenters : Scott Rosenfeld and Andreas Schulz, IALD
By Tamara Yurovsky, Parsons The New School for Design
Scott Rosenfeld and Andreas Schulz, IALD, provided two distinct perspectives on engagement with light in the context of museums. Mr. Rosenfeld was not able to attend the conference in-person, but he shared a pre-recorded presentation. The presentation discussed what he called, "The Agony and the Ecstasy of LED Lighting," in the context of redesigning gallery lighting systems in the Smithsonian Museum in Washington DC, USA. Andreas Schulz, on the other hand, offered an approach for coordinating daylight and electric lighting systems through a discussion of projects designed by his firm.
Mr. Rosenfeld revealed that his approach to lighting design comes from the "Controllable Qualities of Light," which include intensity, movement, angle, distribution and color. When Mr. Rosenfeld began the process of investigating LED technology for museums, his first step was to test the LED lamps. After sending out the lamps for testing, he discovered that the color output would change over time. According to Mr. Rosenfeld, the fact that color was not a controllable aspect of this lighting is incredibly problematic for museums. Mr. Rosenfeld also discussed "Photochemical Balance," which is a balance of the light sensitivity of materials, illuminance and exposure. He says the only factor missing from Photochemical Balance is spectrum. While Mr. Rosenfeld believes that LEDs are appropriate for museums, he says it is essential to be well-educated on the source (including testing). Lighting designers should consider issues of spectrum and the Controllable Qualities of Light as a means to test whether any source is an appropriate choice.
Andreas Schulz, IALD, offered a perspective on how daylight can be used, mitigated, controlled and integrated with electric lighting to create beautiful spaces for displaying and experiencing artwork. Through reviewing a number of completed projects, Mr. Schulz demonstrated how to achieve design that serves the visitor and artwork by combining rigorous daylighting analysis with specific museum programs. For each project, Mr. Schulz and his team created physical daylight models that used either representative or actual material to test the function and potential of their design concepts. The models were tested in both diffuse and direct lighting environments, covering seasonal and daily changes that are important to consider for successful daylight design. Mr. Schulz also showed how electric lighting complements and transforms spaces from day to night, from the interior perspective and from the presence and expression of a building within its context.
IT'S OKAY TO MAKE MONEY; HERE'S HOW
Presenter : Chip Israel, FIALD
By Greg Barrett, Parsons The New School for Design
"We were all led into the lighting design industry by our passion for light. However, we should be compensated for our passion." This was the introductory thought of Chip Israel, FIALD, in his session on how to make money as a lighting designer. What followed was a concise breakdown of developing business goals, the project process, and the realities of being an employer.
According to Mr. Israel, owning a design firm begins with developing a reputation. The architectural lighting design industry is a very small world, and each design firm has a unique approach towards their business that results from a combination of motivation, ego, monetary goals, passion and realistic expectations. Realistic expectations, in particular, should be key to every business owner's introspection. Owners must identify their tolerance for risk and change, and the amount of effort, time and expertise they are willing to commit to the firm. A key point made by Mr. Israel is that owning a firm is not an automatic path to success. Hard work is the most important factor in operating a firm, and there is never a guarantee of monetary success. IALD salary reviews show that, on average, senior lighting designers have a higher income than firm owners.
When setting up a firm, lighting designers should be sure to develop a thorough employee handbook. Sample contracts, such as those on the IALD web site, should be developed for use by employees that detail project scope. Firm owners should also be careful to protect assets from employee theft. The most at-risk assets are often overlooked and include CAD templates and blocks, and fixture schedules. Employee handbooks should also clearly outline the employee expectations of the firm owner(s). As an employer, firm owners must realize that employees are their greatest asset and greatest liability. Firm owners are responsible for an employee's salary, bonuses, profit sharing, flex-hours, vacation time, and work environment and culture. In return for this investment, employees provide firm owners with their talent and time to boost profit and the amount of work completed. For a firm to reach the break-even point on the investment for an employee, the average employee must produce work that has a value of at least three times their salary, due to benefits and overhead.
Part of the project process is the marketing process, which is ongoing even when the firm is swamped with work. Marketing includes all employees and every action a firm takes. Marketing costs affect the profit of a project; therefore, the best marketing is a repeat customer. Effective marketing leads to opportunities to bid on projects. When placing bids and making informed decisions on pricing, it is helpful to have historic data on project costs. Some companies bid high and try to negotiate down, while other companies will bid low and charge for additional services to assure profit. When bidding, firm owners should be clear about what services are included so that expectations of all parties are met.
Once awarded a project, it is time to design and produce. Only about five to 10 percent of time during the business cycle is devoted to design. Production can be completed in-house or by external consultants. When possible, details should be placed into the specific document set of the field it applies to (e.g., place detail millwork fixtures in the millworkers section).
The most important step in the project process is to collect on billings. Mr. Israel suggests several methods for expediting the collections process: contact the owner directly, call several times, hold deliverables, develop a strong contract, or pursue legal options in the worst scenario. The 90-day billing cycle is a myth; it is usually closer to 120 days.
Although firm owners only spend a small amount of time on design work, Mr. Israel says it is wonderful to take a risk and combine your avocation with your vocation.
COMMUNICATING LIGHT: INSPIRATION, PRESENTATION AND REALIZATION
Presenter : Charles Stone, FIALD
By Esteban Varas, Parsons The New School for Design
This session focused on three elements of communicating light: inspiration, presentation and realization. To begin, Charles Stone, FIALD, presented a set of images depicting natural elements, primarily sunsets and sunrises. He introduced the following questions as central to the session: What can light do as an element that we experience with our senses? How can we control light to achieve our conceptual goals as lighting designers? How can light make us feel? How can we take an idea and represent it in a way that is understood by those who are not in the lighting profession?
First, Charles explained, lighting designers must seek inspiration by educating themselves about the field of lighting and studying buildings that serve as examples of successful control of light through architecture. Designers can use case studies to understand how light is distributed through spaces and volumes; these are proportional relationships that are important when developing an environment.
Once inspiration is found, the presentation process begins with a sketch that illustrates a conceptual idea of what the lighting designer wants the project to become. Then, a design sketch is created to explore how the idea can be executed. Once a lighting designer understands the possible lighting conditions, they develop a hand-drawn rendering that realistically interprets the design to convey their ideas to the client. This hand-drawn rendering is tied to the concept rendering, which begins to develop sectional qualities. This is an exploration and representation of how the lighting systems would push back at the darkness, where the light lives. In order to develop an accurate representation of the systems, a layering system is developed on top of an architectural drawing, which shows the client all of the lighting elements that are present; this is achieved through section and perspectives. This phase is where the lighting designer aims to seduce the client through skills of representation. Then, the client can begin to imagine how the space would be felt and experienced.
As a lighting designer conveys their ideas to the client, they must also understand the construction of these systems in order to make them feasible. This phase is called the realization phase. In order to make a project a reality, lighting designers must develop lighting scheme layouts and mock-up studies to ensure that the closest result to concept renders is achieved. Then, construction details are developed, including specifications and illumination analysis, so that the contractor develops on-site exactly what the lighting designer specified. This process involves site visits, fixture aiming and the development of punch-lists.
Charles then presented three of his projects from inspiration and presentation to realization. These projects included The Barnes Foundation, the 9/11 Memorial, and the Space Shuttle Atlantis exhibit at the Kennedy Space Center. For each project, Charles explained the common themes, design approach, sensual concept, exploration, mock-ups and details in order to portray the scope of the work. These elements are explained so that when the project is realized, the client is satisfied with the final outcome if it resembles the representational renders and sketches.
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